Spine Conditions

Spine Trauma

Spine trauma is damage to the spine caused from a sudden traumatic injury caused by an accidental fall or any other physical injury. Spinal injuries may occur while playing, performing normal activities, operating heavy machines, lifting heavy objects, driving automobiles, or when you suffer a fall. Injury to spine may cause various conditions including fractures, dislocation, partial misalignment (subluxation), disc compression (herniated disc), hematoma (accumulation of blood) and partial or complete tears of ligaments.

Find out more about Spine Trauma from the following links.

Back Pain

Back pain is often a common symptom of many disease conditions and the back pain may range from simple or dull pain to sudden and sharp pain. If the pain persists for few days, it is acute pain whereas if continues for more than 3 months, it is considered as chronic pain. In most cases, back pain may resolve without any treatment however if persists for more than 3 days, medical intervention is necessary.

Find out more about Back Pain from the following links.

Cervical Degenerative Disc Disease

The cervical spine is the upper part of the spine comprising of the first 7 vertebrae. The vertebrae are separated from one another by shock absorbing pads called intervertebral discs. Over time, these natural shock absorbers wear out and degenerate due to aging, trauma or injury.

Find out more about Cervical Degenerative Disc Disease from the following links.

Cervical Radiculopathy

Cervical radiculopathy refers to neck pain that radiates to the shoulder and arm caused by injury or compression of a spinal nerve root in the neck region. Cervical radiculopathy is also referred to as nerve root impingement, nerve entrapment, or pinched nerve.

Find out more about Cervical Radiculopathy from the following links.

Cervical Stenosis

Cervical stenosis refers to narrowing of the spinal canal. Cervical stenosis causes neck pain which can radiate to the arms and hands and may also be associated with numbness or weakness of the arms. This may lead to cervical radiculopathy and cervical myelopathy. Cervical radiculopathy occurs due to injury to the cervical spinal nerves, as they exit the spinal canal.

Find out more about Cervical Stenosis from the following links.

Disc changes

The cartilaginous disc is made up of an outer fibrous layer called the annulus fibrosus, which surrounds an inner gelatinous core called the nucleus pulposus. The nucleus pulposus is well hydrated and acts as a shock absorber. Over time, the nucleus pulposus begins to dehydrate and become stiffer, losing its functionality as a shock absorber.

Find out more about Disc changes from the following links.

Herniated Disc

Herniated disc is a medical condition affecting the spine in which the inner central portion (nucleus pulposus) of the spinal disc is forced out through a tear in the outer, fibrous ring (annulus fibrosus) of an intervertebral disc. Herniated disc is also known as a bulging disc, ruptured disc or slipped disc.

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Kyphosis is a condition of abnormal curvature of the spine that causes rounding of the upper back or a hunchback. The thoracic portion of the spine normally has a "C"-shaped curve, but excessive forward curve in the spine leads to kyphosis.

Find out more about Kyphosis from the following links.

Neck Pain

The first 7 vertebral bones on the spinal column form the cervical spine and are located in the neck region. The neck bears the weight of the head, allows significant amount of movement, and also less protected than other parts of spine. All these factors make the neck more susceptible to injury or other painful disorders.

Find out more about Neck Pain from the following links.


Pseudarthrosis is an unhealed broken bone, also known as nonunion. Usually, damaged or broken bones heal over time by forming new bone tissue connecting the damaged pieces of the bone. However, if the damaged bone fails to heal then it is called 'nonunion' or 'pseudarthrosis'. Pseudarthrosis refers to the formation of a false bone due to improper healing.

Find out more about Pseudarthrosis/Nonunion from the following links.

Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction

The sacroiliac joint is one of the large joints in the body and is formed by the connection of the sacrum and the right and left iliac (pelvic) bones. The sacroiliac joints have small amount of movement and transmits all the forces of the upper body to the lower body. The sacrum is the triangular-shaped bone at the bottom of the spine, below the lumbar spine.

Find out more about Sacroiliac Joint Dysfunction from the following links.


Scoliosis is a condition characterized by abnormal curvature of the spine causing a deviation to one side. It causes a physical deformity making the spine look like the letter "C" or "S" instead of the letter "I". Scoliosis can affect either the mid or the lower back but the scoliosis of the mid back is more common. Scoliosis can occur at any age.

Find out more about Scoliosis from the following links.

Spinal Stenosis

Spinal stenosis is a condition caused from the vertebral column constricting and exerting pressure on the spinal cord or neural foramen (a bony tunnel through which a nerve exits the spinal cord).

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The spine, also called the back bone, is designed to give us stability, smooth movement, as well as providing a corridor of protection for the delicate spinal cord.

Find out more about Spondylolisthesis from the following links.

Spinal Deformity Surgery

The Spine or backbone provides stability to the upper part of our body. It helps to hold the body upright. It consists of several irregularly shaped bones, called vertebrae appearing in a straight line. The spine has two gentle curves, when looked from the side and appears to be straight when viewed from the front.

Find out more about Spinal Deformity Surgery from the following links.

Vertebral Fractures

Vertebral compression fractures occur when the normal vertebral body of the spine is squeezed or compressed. The bone collapses when too much pressure is placed on the vertebrae, resulting in pain, limited mobility, loss of height, and spinal deformities. In severe compression fractures the vertebral body is pushed into the spinal canal which will apply pressure on the spinal cord and nerves.

Find out more about Vertebral Fractures from the following links.


The term arthritis literally means inflammation of a joint, but is generally used to describe any condition in which there is damage to the cartilage. Inflammation is the body's natural response to injury. The warning signs that inflammation presents are redness, swelling, heat and pain.

Find out more about Arthritis from the following links.

  • aaos
  • Orthopadic Research Society
  • Florida Medical Society
  • Florida Orthopadic Society
  • North American Spine Society
  • American Medical Association
  • American Board of Orthopedic surgeons (ABOS)
  • International Society for the Advancement of Spine Surgery (ISASS)
  • Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)
  • Cervical Spine Research Society (CSRS)
  • AOSpine