Scoliosis is a condition characterized by abnormal curvature of the spine causing a deviation to one side. It causes a physical deformity making the spine look like the letter "C" or "S" instead of the letter "I". Scoliosis can affect either the mid or the lower back but the scoliosis of the mid back is more common. Scoliosis can occur at any age. It can be classified into five categories, depending on the age group affected:
Scoliosis can be caused by a wide variety of conditions, depending on which it has been categorized into:
Some patients may develop a compensatory curve to compensate for the imbalance due to scoliosis. However, this compensatory curve is less severe.
What are the symptoms of scoliosis?
In the initial stage, idiopathic scoliosis may be asymptomatic. The symptoms of scoliosis depend on the cause, severity and age of the patient. Some of the common symptoms include spinal curvature, abnormal gait, uneven shoulders and hip, difference in leg lengths, more prominent rib or shoulder blade when the patient bends in the front and back pain. In severe cases it may also cause breathlessness.
How is scoliosis diagnosed?
The diagnosis of scoliosis, by a spine specialist, involves family and medical history along with physical and neurological examination. Physical examination involves palpation of the spine, Adam's forward bending test, and plumb line test. A neurologic examination involves the evaluation of any signs of neurological injury such as numbness, muscle weakness or abnormal reflexes. X-ray of the spine in different positions such as standing and bending forward is also helpful. Other specific tests for diagnosing scoliosis include a measure of the degree of spinal curve (scoliometer), degree of vertebral rotation and skeletal maturity. Additional tests to identify the cause of scoliosis may also be conducted.
The treatment plan is based on the cause of scoliosis, the degree and position of the spinal curve and the age of the patient. The non-operative treatment approach of scoliosis includes:
Observation: No treatment is required for a spinal curve below 20 degrees. However, the patients are advised regular follow up visits, by the spine specialist. These patients are carefully monitored for the progression of the curve.
Back bracing: A back brace may be recommended in children with a curve between 20-40 degrees to stop the progression of scoliosis and prevent surgery. Bracing is not effective in individuals with congenital or neuromuscular scoliosis.
Surgery is recommended for patients who fail to respond to non-surgical treatment or the curvature progresses and becomes greater than 45-degrees, or is a cause of cardiopulmonary complications.
Surgery is an option for individuals with severe scoliosis to stop the curve from getting worse. The surgery repairs the abnormal curvature of the spine. There are different surgical approaches to repair the deformity, and the choice of the approach to the spine is based on the type of scoliosis, location of the curvature of the spine, ease of approach to the area of the curve and the preference of the surgeon.
Click on the link below to find out more from the orthopedic connection website of American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons.